April 13, 2018

Real world home blood pressure variability in over 56,000 individuals with nearly 17 million measurements

  • Kim K.
  • Nikzad N.
  • Normand A.
  • Quer G.
  • Schmidt N.
  • Steinhubl S.
  • Topol E.
  • Vegreville M.
  • Wineinger N.

© American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. BACKGROUND: Using the data from 56,365 individuals, from 185 countries, and a Nokia Health Wireless blood pressure (BP) monitor, we investigated real-world characteristics of BP variability (BPV). METHODS: All included individuals self-measured and uploaded their BP using Bluetooth at least 20 times over a period of > 1 month at a frequency and duration of their choosing. In total, 16,904,844 BP measurements were analyzed, with a median of 146 measurements per person (interquartile range [IQR] 73-321) over a median of 14 months (IQR 7-31). SD, coefficient of variation, maximum BP, and maximum minus minimum BP difference were all calculated as measures of BPV. RESULTS: BPV showed a distinct pattern, influenced by season of year, day of week, and time of day. BPV index was higher in females compared with males (P < 0.001) and increased with age (P < 0.001). Compared to the weekend, the weekday BPV index was significantly higher, and this finding was more prominent in females (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, BPV index were significantly associated with age, gender, geographic location, and mean BP values. CONCLUSION: Using the largest BP data set we are aware of, with the benefits and limitations of real-world measurement, we could show the pattern of BPV and provide reference values that may be helpful in understanding the nature of BPV as self-measurement at home becomes more common, and help guide individualized management.

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